Πέμπτη, 6 Δεκεμβρίου 2007

The Unusual Radiations Produced by Nikola Tesla


(c) Robert Neil Boyd

"Secrets of Cold War Technology", a book by Gerry Vassilatos

OVERVIEW:

"The sudden quick closure of the switch now brought a penetrating shockwave throughout the laboratory, one which could be felt both as a sharp pressure and a penetrating electrical irritation. A "sting". Face and hands were especially sensitive to the explosive shockwaves, which also produced a curious "stinging" effect at close range...

"Tesla shielded himself with several materials. The arrangement of rapidly interrupted high voltage direct currents resulted in the radiation of stinging rays which could be felt at great distances from their super-sparking source. In fact, Tesla felt the stings right through the shields! Whatever had been released from the wires during the instant of switch closure, successfully penetrated the shields of glass and of copper. It made no difference, the effect permeated each substance as if the shield were not there at all...

"Through successive experimental arrangements, Tesla discovered several facts concerning the production of his effect. First, the cause was undoubtedly found in the abruptness of charging. It was in the switch closure, the very instant of "closure and break", which thrust the effect out into space. The effect was definitely related to time, IMPULSE time. Second, Tesla found that it was imperative that the charging process occurred in a single impulse. No reversal of current was permissible, else the effect would not manifest...

"The effect could also be greatly intensified to new and more powerful levels by raising the voltage, quickening the switch "make-break" rate, and shortening the actual time of switch closure... He found this "automatic switch" in special electrical arc dischargers. The high voltage output of a DC generator was applied to twin conductors through his new arc mechanism, a very powerful permanent magnet sitting crosswise to the discharge path. The discharge arc was automatically and continually "blown out" by this magnetic field...

"By properly adjusting the inherent circuit parameters, Tesla learned how to produce an extremely rapid series of unidirectional impulses on demand. When the impulses were short, abrupt, and precise in their successions, Tesla found that the shocking effect could permeate very large volumes of space with apparently no loss of intensity. He also found that the shocking effect penetrated sizable metal shields and most insulators with ease. Developing a means for controlling the number of impulses per second, as well as the intermittent time intervals between each successive impulse, he began discovering a new realm of effects. Each impulse duration gave its own peculiar effects. Able to feel the stinging shocks, though shielded at a distance of nearly fifty feet from his apparatus...

"Controlling the rapidity of current blowout in the magnetic DC arc, Tesla released a new spectrum of light-like energies throughout his large gallery space. These energetic species were like no other which the world has since seen. Tesla found that impulse duration alone defined the effect of each succinct spectrum. These effects were completely distinctive, endowed with strange additional qualities never purely experienced in Nature..."


FURTHER DETAIL:

TESLA RADIANT ENERGY:
SHOCKWAVES

"... while endeavoring toward his own means for identifying electrical waves, Tesla was blessed with an accidental observation which forever changed the course of his experimental investigations. Indeed, it was an accident which forever changed the course of his life and destiny. In his own attempts to achieve where he felt Hertz had failed, Tesla developed a powerful method by which he hoped to generate and detect real electromagnetic waves. Part of this apparatus required the implementation of a very powerful capacitor bank. This capacitor "battery" was charged to very high voltages, and subsequently discharged through short copper bus-bars. The explosive bursts thus obtained produced several coincident phenomena which deeply impressed Tesla, far exceeding the power of any electrical display he had ever seen. These proved to hold an essential secret which he was determined to uncover.

The abrupt sparks, which he termed "disruptive discharges", were found capable of exploding wires into vapor. They propelled very sharp shockwaves, which struck him with great force across the whole front of his body. Of this surprising physical effect, Tesla was exceedingly intrigued. Rather like gunshots of extraordinary power than electrical sparks, Tesla was completely absorbed in this new study. Electrical impulses produced effects commonly associated only with lightning. The explosive effects reminded him of similar occurrences observed with high voltage DC generators. A familiar experience among workers and engineers, the simple closing of a switch on a high voltage dynamo often brought a stinging shock, the assumed result of residual static charging.

This hazardous condition only occurred with the sudden application of high voltage DC. This crown of deadly static charge stood straight out of highly electrified conductors, often seeking ground paths which included workmen and switchboard operators. In long cables, this instantaneous charge effect produced a hedge of bluish needles, pointing straight away from the line into the surrounding space. The hazardous condition appeared briefly, at the very instant of switch closure. The bluish sparking crown vanished a few milliseconds later, along with the life of any unfortunate who happened to have been so "struck". After the brief effect passed, systems behaved as designed. Such phenomena vanished as charges slowly saturated the lines and systems. After this brief surge, currents flowed smoothly and evenly as designed.

The effect was a nuisance in small systems. But in large regional power systems where voltages were excessive, it proved deadly. Men were killed by the effect, which spread its deadly electrostatic crown of sparks throughout component systems. Though generators were rated at a few thousand volts, such mysterious surges represented hundreds of thousands, even millions of volts. The problem was eliminated through the use of highly insulated, heavily grounded relay switches. Former engineering studies considered only those features of power systems which accommodated the steady state supply and consumption of power. It seemed as though large systems required both surge and normal operative design considerations. Accommodating the dangerous initial "supercharge" was a new feature. This engineering study became the prime focus of power companies for years afterward, safety devices and surge protectors being the subject of a great many patents and texts.

Tesla knew that the strange supercharging effect was only observed at the very instant in which dynamos were applied to wire lines, just as in his explosive capacitor discharges. Though the two instances were completely different, they both produced the very same effects. The instantaneous surge supplied by dynamos briefly appeared super-concentrated in long lines. Tesla calculated that this electrostatic concentration was several orders in magnitude greater than any voltage which the dynamo could supply. The actual supply was somehow being amplified or transformed. But how?...

The high voltage of the dynamo exerted such an intense unidirectional pressure on the densified charges that alternations were impossible. The only possible backrushes were oscillations. In this case, charges surged and stopped in a long series until the supercharge was wasted away. All parameters which forced such oscillations actually limited the supercharge from manifesting its total energetic supply, a condition Tesla strove to eliminate. Indeed he spent an excessive time developing various means to block every "backrush" and other complex current echo which might forced the supercharge to prematurely waste its dense energy. Here was an effect demanding a single unidirectional super pulse. With both the oscillations and alternations eliminated, new and strange effects began making their appearance. These powerful and penetrating phenomena were never observed when working with high frequency alternations...

The sudden quick closure of the switch now brought a penetrating shockwave throughout the laboratory, one which could be felt both as a sharp pressure and a penetrating electrical irritation. A "sting". Face and hands were especially sensitive to the explosive shockwaves, which also produced a curious "stinging" effect at close range. Tesla believed that material particles approaching the vapor state were literally thrust out of the wires in all directions. In order to better study these effects, he poised himself behind a glass shield and resumed the study. Despite the shield, both shockwaves and stinging effects were felt by the now mystified Tesla. This anomaly provoked a curiosity of the very deepest kind, for such a thing was never before observed. More powerful and penetrating than the mere electrostatic charging of metals, this phenomenon literally propelled high voltage charge out into the surrounding space where it was felt as a stinging sensation. The stings lasting for a small fraction of a second, the instant of switch closure. But Tesla believed that these strange effects were a simple effect of ionized shockwaves in the air, rather like a strongly ionized thunderclap.

Tesla devised a new series of experiments to measure the shockwave pressure from a greater distance. He required an automatic "trip switch". With this properly arranged, a more controlled and repetitious triggering of the effect was possible. In addition, this arrangement permitted distant observations which might cast more light on the shield-permeating phenomenon. Controlling the speed of the high voltage dynamo controlled the voltage. With these components properly adjusted, Tesla was able to walk around his large gallery spaces and make observations. Wishing also to avoid the continuous pressure barrage and its stinging sparks, Tesla shielded himself with several materials. The arrangement of rapidly interrupted high voltage direct currents resulted in the radiation of stinging rays which could be felt at great distances from their super-sparking source. In fact, Tesla felt the stings right through the shields! Whatever had been released from the wires during the instant of switch closure, successfully penetrated the shields of glass and of copper. It made no difference, the effect permeated each substance as if the shield were not there at all. Here was an electrical effect which communicated directly through space without material connections. Radiant electricity!...

RADIANT ELECTRICITY

Through successive experimental arrangements, Tesla discovered several facts concerning the production of his effect. First, the cause was undoubtedly found in the abruptness of charging. It was in the switch closure, the very instant of "closure and break", which thrust the effect out into space. The effect was definitely related to time, IMPULSE time. Second, Tesla found that it was imperative that the charging process occurred in a single impulse. No reversal of current was permissible, else the effect would not manifest. In this, Tesla made succinct remarks describing the role of capacity in the spark-radiative circuit. He found that the effect was powerfully strengthened by placing a capacitor between the disrupter and the dynamo. While providing a tremendous power to the effect, the dielectric of the capacitor also served to protect the dynamo windings. Not yet sure of the process at work in this phenomenon, Tesla sought the empirical understanding required for its amplification and utilization. He had already realized the significance of this unexpected effect The idea of bringing this strange and wondrous new phenomenon to its full potential already suggested thrilling new possibilities in his mind. He completely abandoned research and development of alternating current systems after this event, intimating that a new technology was about to unfold.

The effect could also be greatly intensified to new and more powerful levels by raising the voltage, quickening the switch "make-break" rate, and shortening the actual time of switch closure. Thus far, Tesla employed rotating contact switches to produce his unidirectional impulses. When these mechanical impulse systems failed to achieve the greatest possible effects, Tesla sought a more "automatic" and powerful means. He found this "automatic switch" in special electrical arc dischargers. The high voltage output of a DC generator was applied to twin conductors through his new arc mechanism, a very powerful permanent magnet sitting crosswise to the discharge path. The discharge arc was automatically and continually "blown out" by this magnetic field...

By properly adjusting the inherent circuit parameters, Tesla learned how to produce an extremely rapid series of unidirectional impulses on demand. When the impulses were short, abrupt, and precise in their successions, Tesla found that the shocking effect could permeate very large volumes of space with apparently no loss of intensity. He also found that the shocking effect penetrated sizable metal shields and most insulators with ease. Developing a means for controlling the number of impulses per second, as well as the intermittent time intervals between each successive impulse, he began discovering a new realm of effects. Each impulse duration gave its own peculiar effects. Able to feel the stinging shocks, though shielded at a distance of nearly fifty feet from his apparatus, Tesla recognized at once that a new potential for electrical power transmission had been revealed to him. Tesla was first to understand that electrical shock waves represented a new means for transforming the world... Tesla found it impossible to measure a diminution in radiant force at several hundred yards...

Also, Tesla wished to determine the effect of gradually decreased impulse durations required greatest skill and precaution. Tesla knew that he would be exposing himself to mortal danger. Controlling the rapidity of current blowout in the magnetic DC arc, Tesla released a new spectrum of light-like energies throughout his large gallery space. These energetic species were like no other which the world has since seen. Tesla found that impulse duration alone defined the effect of each succinct spectrum. These effects were completely distinctive, endowed with strange additional qualities never purely experienced in Nature. Moreover, Tesla observed distinct color changes in the discharge space when each impulse range had been reached or crossed. Never before seen discharge colorations did not remain a mystery for long. Trains of impulses, each exceeding 0.1 millisecond duration, produced pain and mechanical pressures. In this radiant field, objects visibly vibrated and even moved as the force field drove them along. Thin wires, exposed to sudden bursts of the radiant field, exploded into vapor. Pain and physical movements ceased when impulses of 100 microseconds or less were produced. These latter features suggested weapon systems of frightful potentials.

With impulses of 1.0 microsecond duration, strong physiological heat was sensed. Further decreases in impulse brought spontaneous illuminations capable of filling rooms and vacuum globes with white light At these impulse frequencies, Tesla was able to stimulate the appearance of effects which are normally admixed among the electromagnetic energies inherent in sunlight. Shorter impulses produced cool room penetrating breezes, with an accompanying uplift in mood and awareness. There were no limits in this progression toward impulses of diminished duration. None of these impulse energies could be duplicated through the use of high frequency harmonic alternations, those which Sir Oliver Lodge popularized, and which later was embodied in Marconi Wave Radio. Few could reproduce these effects because so few understood the absolute necessity of observing those parameters set by Tesla. These facts have been elucidated by Eric Dollard, who also successfully obtained the strange and distinct effects claimed by Tesla."

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