Electronic Mind Control
By Jason Jeffrey
Tense nervous headache? Always run down and irritable? Not feeling yourself? Well maybe that’s because you’re not yourself, rather, you are being controlled from somewhere else by someone or something else.
A few years ago the BBC program “Tomorrow’s World” featured a man whose Parkinson’s Disease symptoms could be controlled by pressing a switch on a handset which in turn operated a tiny device implanted into his brain. No more shaking, no more tears. This is the friendly, caring side of neural implants, but many people believe that dark forces are at work, trying to take over the minds of their targeted subjects via tiny objects inserted into various parts of the body. Even worse, these sinister controllers are beaming strong electromagnetic rays into the minds of innocent victims, influencing their thoughts and emotions.
These shadowy forces take many forms; some say that it’s intelligence agencies like the CIA; others that it’s a secret cabal plotting for control of the world’s population; still others that it’s malicious aliens, the Greys, who use implants as tracking devices so that they can abduct and control their hapless victims anytime and anyplace.
Warnings of new forms of mind control are not just the rantings of so-called ‘conspiracy theorists’ and ‘paranoid cranks’. Nature1 reports on developments in neuroscience as “posing a potential threat to human rights…” Jean-Pierre Changeux, a neuroscientist at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, told a meeting of the French national bioethics committee that advances in cerebral imagining make the scope for invasion of privacy immense. He said that although the equipment needed is still highly specialised, it will become commonplace and capable of being used at a distance. That will open the way for abuses such as invasion of personal liberty, control of behaviour and brainwashing. Denis LeBihan, a researcher at the French Atomic Energy Commission, told the meeting that the use of imaging techniques has reached the stage where “we can almost read people’s thoughts.”
American interest in the hypnosis-EMR [electromagnetic radiation] interaction was still strong as of 1974, when a research plan was filed to develop useful techniques in human volunteers. The experimenter, J.F. Schapitz, stated: “In this investigation it will be shown that the spoken word of the hypnotist may also be conveyed by modulated electromagnetic energy directly into the subconscious parts of the human brain – i.e., without employing any technical devices for receiving or transcoding the messages and without the person exposed to such influence having a chance to control the information input consciously”.2
– Robert O. Becker, Nobel Prize nominee, 1985
Although our modern electronic age has been in existence only since the turn of this century, individuals have claimed that their minds were being remotely influenced and controlled by machines for at least two centuries.
Recorded way back in 1810 is the case of James Tilly Matthews, a London tea broker, who claimed his mind was being controlled by a gang operating a machine he called an “Air Loom” which sent out invisible, magnetic rays from a London cellar. Matthews believed machines like the Air Loom were also controlling the minds of members of the British Parliament. He wrote letters to the MPs warning them about the machines and the conspiracy behind it. Matthews was committed to Bethlem Hospital as being insane.3
It might be easy to dismiss Matthews’ claims of a machine that can control one’s mind because of the early date. However, his is by no means an isolated case.
In 1994 Ronald K. Siegel, a Associate Research Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences at UCLA, wrote Whispers: The Voices of Paranoia.4 Dr. Siegel, an expert on hallucinations, edited a book on this subject in 1975 with Louis Jolyn West of MKULTRA fame.5
MKULTRA, as well as projects BLUEBIRD, ARTI-CHOKE, CHATTER, CASTI-GATE, MKDELTA, MKNAOMI, THIRD CHANCE, MKSEARCH, MKOFTEN, etc., were covert CIA projects involving many prominent members and institutions of the medical and scientific communities to investigate and experiment with various forms of behaviour modification and control using, in many cases, unwitting human subjects. In operation from the late 1940’s until the early 1970’s, they delved into everything from drugs to hypnosis to electronics.6
Whispers is a collection of case histories of mind control, (or ‘paranoia’ as he calls it) studied by Siegel. One case concerned a man named Tolman who believed his mind was being controlled by computers via a satellite system named POSSE (Personal Orbiting Satellite for Surveillance and Enforcement). Interestingly, author Dorothy Burdick, in her 1982 book Such Things Are Known described what she claimed was her mind control harassment by computers via satellites. She names Siegel as being the inventor of a device named FOCUS (Flexible Optical Control Unit Simulator) which can project hallucinations directly onto the retina so the subjects can’t distinguish the images from reality.7 In Siegel’s book Tolman claims images are being directly transmitted into his brain. Siegel says, “You mean to tell me that here are machines capable of sending visual images directly into the brain?”8
In 1968 Siegel published a professional paper titled “A Device for Chronically Controlled Visual Input” which is a description of a device he developed to project images directly into the brain of experimental animals via the optic nerve. He suggests further experimentation be “conducted on neonates (kittens) which have their total visual stimulation controlled from the time they open their eyes.”9
Thirty years later a team of US scientists wired a computer to a cat’s brain and created videos of what the cat was seeing. One of the scientists working on the project, Garret Stanley of Harvard University, predicts machines with brain interfaces. We can only imagine how far such technology has advanced in the secret research laboratories of the US government and the military/industrial complex.
Unlike Matthews, today’s victims can point to a wealth of documentation confirming how government agencies and research centres have been developing technologies and methods with the same capabilities that people have been describing for two centuries. These technologies involve elements of psychology, hypnosis, political conspiracies, and even devices that emit “rays” to control the behaviour of others without their knowledge or consent.
Biological Process Control
In 1996, the US Air Force Scientific Advisory Board published a 14-volume study of future developments in weapons called New World Vistas. Tucked away on page 89 of an ancillary 15th volume are some hair-raising insights into the future ‘coupling’ of man and machine in a section dealing with ‘Biological Process Control’. The author refers to an ‘explosion’ of knowledge in the field of neuroscience, adding, ominously:
One can envision the development of electromagnetic energy sources, the output of which can be pulsed, shaped, and focused, that can couple with the human body in a fashion that will allow one to prevent voluntary muscular movements, control emotions (and thus actions), produce sleep, transmit suggestions, interfere with both short-term and long-term memory, produce an experience set, and delete an experience set.
Translating the words ‘experience set’ from military jargon into plain English, this means, simply, that they envisage the ability to erase your life’s memories and substitute a new, fictitious set.
By projecting such developments into the future, the authors of New Vistas are camouflaging present day capabilities. A similar futuristic scenario with many references to mind manipulation is described in The Revolution in Military Affairs and Conflict Short of War (US Army War College, 1994). Authors Steven Metz and James Kievit declare: “Behaviour modification is a key component of peace enforcement” and “The advantage of [using] directed energy systems is deniability.” The authors ask: “Against whom is such deniability aimed?” The direct answer is “the American people”.
Set in the year 2010, Metz and Kievit write of “perception moulding” and “advanced psycho-technologies” to avoid irksome public protest, but that is just the beginning. The major obstacle, they believe, is that “traditional American ethics [are] a major hindrance,” and thus, sadly “old-fashioned notions of personal privacy and national sovereignty [are to be] changed.”
The future presented by Metz and Kievit sounds like a mixture of George Orwell’s 1984 and the recent movie The Matrix. Individuals unwilling to go along with the revolutionary changes are “identified using comprehensive inter-agency integrated databases.” They will then be “categorized” and “sophisticated computerized personality simulations” will be used “to develop, tailor and focus psychological campaigns for [ie. against] each.”
Other techniques to be used in association with these new mind weapons include ‘morphing’, a present-day ability that controls the distortion of TV images. So, if you are lucky enough not to have your brain electronically scrambled or erased, the electronic news media will be manipulated especially for you, presenting convincing near-real-life visual images through your combined TV set-cum-internet interface.
The Silent Sound Spread Spectrum (SSSS) technology, also known as “S-quad”, was developed by Dr. Oliver Lowery of Georgia, USA, and is described in US Patent #5,159,703 as “Silent Subliminal Presentation System.” The abstract for the patent reads:
A silent communications system in which nonaural carriers, in the very low or very high audio-frequency range or in the adjacent ultrasonic frequency spectrum are amplitude- or frequency-modulated with the desired intelligence and propagated acoustically or vibrationally, for inducement into the brain, typically through the use of loudspeakers, earphones, or piezoelectric transducers. The modulated carriers may be transmitted directly in real time or may be conveniently recorded and stored on mechanical, magnetic or optical media for delayed or repeated transmission to the listener.
According to literature by Silent Sounds, Inc., it is now possible, using supercomputers, to analyse human emotional EEG patterns and replicate them, then store these “emotion signature clusters” on another computer and, at will, “silently induce and change the emotional state in a human being.”
Judy Wall, writing in Nexus (October-November 1998), says “Silent Sounds, Inc. states that it is interested only in positive emotions, but the military is not so limited. That this is a US Department of Defense project is obvious.”
Edward Tilton, President of Silent Sounds Inc., says this about S-quad in a letter dated 13 December, 1996:
All schematics, however, have been classified by the US Government and we are not allowed to reveal the exact details… we make tapes and CDs for the German Government, even the former Soviet Union countries! All with the permission of the US State Department, of course… The system was used throughout Operation Desert Storm (Iraq) quite successfully.
By using these computer-enhanced EEGs, scientists can identify and isolate the brain’s low-amplitude “emotion signature clusters”, synthesise them and store them on another computer. In other words, by studying the subtle characteristic brainwave patterns that occur when a subject experiences a particular emotion, scientists have been able to identify the concomitant brainwave pattern and can now duplicate it. “These clusters are then placed on the Silent Sound carrier frequencies and will silently trigger the occurrence of the same basic emotion in another human being!”
Synthetic telepathy is a term used to describe the beaming of words, thoughts, or ideas into a person’s mind by mechanical means, specifically, some type of electromagnetic transmitter, similar to a radio or television broadcast, operating in the microwave frequency band. In recent years thousands of people have come forward claiming to be victims of this frightening technology.
The first officially reported scientific experi-ment documenting a case of synthetic telepathy cannot be found in the academic literature because of the highly secretive nature of the research.
In 1961 Allen Frey, a freelance biophysicist and engineering psychologist, reported that a human can hear microwaves.10 This discovery was dismissed by most United States scientists as being the result of artifact (outside noise).
The more technical description of the experiment is described by James C. Linn.11
Frey... found that human subjects exposed to 1310 MHz and 2982 MHz microwaves at average power densities of 0.4 to 2 mW/cm2 perceived auditory sensations described as buzzing or knocking sounds (also described as clicks or chirps).
The peak power densities were on the order of 200 to 300 mW/cm2 and the pulse repetition frequencies varied from 200 to 400 Hz... Frey referred to this auditory phenomenon as the RF (radio frequency) sound. The sensation occurred instantaneously at average incident power densities well below that necessary for known biological damage and appeared to originate from within or near the back of the head.
Further testing revealed that two requirements were necessary for the subject to hear the microwave induced sound: “good bone conduction and the ability to hear acoustic energy above 5 kHz...”
By 1975 the introduction to a paper by A.W. Guy and others begins, “One of the most widely observed and accepted biologic effects of low average power electromagnetic (EM) energy is the auditory sensation evoked in man when exposed to pulsed microwaves.”12
Present day US Government use of synthetic telepathy was described in the October-November 1994 issue of Nexus:
Directed-energy weapons currently being deployed include, for example, a micro-wave weapon manufactured by Lockheed-Sanders and used for a process known as ‘Voice Synthesis’ which is remote beaming of audio (i.e., voices or other audible signals) directly into the brain of any selected human target. This process is also known within the US Government as ‘Synthetic Telepathy’.
Much of the work done with microwaves was developed by Project Pandora, which was put into place by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research to study the effects of microwaves that were being beamed into the American Embassy in Moscow by the Russians. Some of the findings of the scientists involved with Pandora are quite disturbing. Dr. Joseph C. Sharp and engineer Mark Grove were able to hear and distinguish one-syllable words by pulse-modulated microwaves.13
Microwaves can also alter the permeability of the body’s blood-brain barrier,14 which can synergistically increase the effects of drugs, as the military is well aware. “Using relatively low-level RFR, it may be possible to sensitise large military groups to extremely dispersed amounts of biological or chemical agents to which the unirradiated population would be immune.”15
Sound can be transmitted even easier through the use of implants – cochlear implants, implants that send electrical signals into the fluid of the inner ear, or implants that transmit sound vibrations via bone conduction, such as the cases of dental fillings picking up audible radio signals. The stimoceiver, invented by Dr. Jose Delgado, consists of wires running from strategic points in the brain to a radio receiver/transmitter located entirely under the skin. Through this device, Delgado was able to stimulate raw emotions such as arousal, anxiety, and aggression with the turn of a knob.16
Of course, secret research by the US Government into microwaves and synthetic telepathy has moved on considerably since the end of the Cold War.
McVeigh: Manchurian Candidate?
Among the many telemetry instruments being used today, are miniature radio transmitters that can be swallowed, carried externally, or surgically implanted.... They permit the simultaneous study of behaviour and physiological functioning.
– Dr. Stuart Mackay, Bio-Medical Telemetry (textbook), 1968
While visiting friends in Decker, Michigan, Timothy McVeigh complained that the Army had implanted him with a microchip, a miniature subcutaneous transponder, so that they could keep track of him. He complained that it left an unexplained scar on his buttocks and was painful to sit on. McVeigh was convicted of the 1995 bombing of a US Government building in Oklahoma City.
Miniaturised telemetrics have been part of an ongoing project by the military and the various intelligence agencies to test the effectiveness of tracking soldiers on the battlefield. The miniature implantable telemetric device was declassified long ago.
According to Dr. Carl Sanders, the developer of the Intelligence Manned Interface (IMI) biochip, “We used this with military personnel in the Iraq War where they were actually tracked using this particular type of device.”
It is also interesting to note that the Calspan Advanced Technology Centre in Buffalo, NY (Calspan ATC), where McVeigh worked, is engaged in microscopic electronic engineering of the kind applicable to telemetrics. Calspan was founded in 1946 as Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, which included the “Fund for the Study of Human Ecology,” a CIA financing conduit for mind control experiments by emigre Nazi scientists and others under the direction of CIA doctors Sidney Gottlieb, Ewen Cameron, and Louis Jolyn West.
According to mind control researcher Alex Constantine, “Calspan places much research emphasis on bioengineering and artificial intelligence (Calspan pioneered the field in the 1950s).” In his article, “The Good Soldier,” Constantine states:
Human tracking and monitoring technology are well within Calspan’s sphere of pursuits. The company is instrumental in REDCAP, an Air Force electronic warfare system that winds through every Department of Defense facility in the country. A Pentagon release explains that REDCAP “is used to evaluate the effectiveness of electronic-combat hardware, techniques, tactics and concepts.” The system “includes closed-loop radar and data links at RF manned data fusion and weapons control posts.” One Patriot computer news board reported that a disembodied, rumbling, low-frequency hum had been heard across the country the week of the [Oklahoma] bombing. Past hums in Taos, New Mexico, Eugene and Medford, Oregon, Timmons, Ontario and Bristol, England were most definitely (despite specious official denials) attuned to the brain’s auditory pathways.
The Air Force is among Calspan’s leading clients, and Eglin AFB has farmed key personnel to the company. The grating irony – recalling McVeigh’s contention he’d been implanted with a telemetry chip – is that the Instrumentation Technology Branch of Eglin Air Force Base is currently engaged in the tracking of mammals with subminiature telemetry devices. According to an Air Force press release, the biotelemetry chip transmits on the upper S-band (2318 to 2398 MHz), with up to 120 digital channels.
There is nothing secret about the biotelemetry chip. Ads for commercial versions of the device have appeared in national publications. Time magazine ran an ad for an implantable pet transponder in its 26 June, 1995 issue – ironically enough – opposite an article about a militia leader who was warning about the coming New World Order. While monitoring animals has been an unclassified scientific pursuit for decades, the monitoring of humans has been a highly classified project that is but a subset of the Pentagon’s “nonlethal” arsenal. As Constantine notes, “the dystopian implications were explored by Defense News for 20 March, 1995:
Naval Research Lab Attempts To Meld Neurons And Chips: Studies May Produce Army of ‘Zombies.’
Future battles could be waged with genetically engineered organisms, such as rodents, whose minds are controlled by computer chips engineered with living brain cells.... The research, called Hippo-campal Neuron Patterning, grows live neurons on computer chips. “This technology that alters neurons could potentially be used on people to create zombie armies,” Lawrence Korb, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, said.
“It’s conceivable,” according to Constantine, “given the current state of the electronic mind control art, a biocybernetic Oz over the black budget rainbow, that McVeigh had been drawn into an experimental project, that the device was the real McCoy.” Timothy McVeigh may have unknowningly been an Army/CIA guinea pig involved in a classified telemetric/mind-control project – a “Manchurian Candidate.”
A highly secretive battle was being waged behind the scenes during the Cold War in the area of EM weapons (sometimes described as psychotronics) to control and influence the minds of people. It’s only now that some of this research has emerged, but much of it remains hidden and classified. In fact, we know more about Soviet research into this area because it was the Soviet Union that collapsed.
A 1975 issue of the Soviet publication International Life, discussing electronic mind control developments, stated that atmospheric electricity can be used “to suppress the mental activity” of large groups of people. The Soviet journal said that a sonic generator, tuned to an infrasound (below the hearing level) frequency, could create “feelings of depression, fear, panic, terror, and despair.”
In 1977, the US Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) declassified a report describing how advances in Soviet psychotronic technology can create the ultimate big brother society, by using electronic mind control against populations to implant ideas and thoughts into the heads of unsuspecting victims: “Sounds and possibly even words, which appear to be originating intracranially (within one’s own head), can be induced by signal modification at very low average power densities.”
The DIA report also said that the Soviets discovered that secret microwave radiation can be used to induce in unsuspecting victims: “Headache, fatigue, perspiring, dizziness, menstrual disorders, irritability, agitation, tension, drowsiness, sleeplessness, depression, anxiety, forgetfulness, and the lack of concentration.”
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, in a manoeuvre identical to Operation Paperclip in World War II,17 Western intelligence agencies obtained all the Soviet research and recruited key personnel working in this sensitive area. Russian research has now all but stopped due to economic crises.
A report in Defense Electronics in the early 1990s said that a Richmond, Virginia firm, Psychotechnologies (believed to be closely tied to the CIA and the FBI) purchased the American rights to Soviet mind control devices.
Defense Electronics described a spring, 1993 meeting between Clinton Administration officials and Soviet psychotronics experts, including Dr. Igor Smirnov. Amongst the US agencies represented at the meetings with Smirnov were the FBI, the CIA, the Defense Intelligence Agency, and the Advance Research Projects Research Agency. Clinton Administration officials wanted “to determine whether psycho-correction... programs could be undertaken by the US Government. These devices could be used to affect judgment or opinion of decision-makers, key personnel or populaces.”
Clinton defense officials expressed interest that the psychotronic devices could be used “in non-violently” clearing areas of potential enemies, snipers, etc. On the domestic front, psychotronic devices could be used to suppress political dissidents, and any other potential threats to the New World Order.
Also meeting with the Soviet experts were officials from giant international corporations, such as General Motors, and researchers from the National Institute of Mental Health. The 22 August, 1994 Newsweek magazine reported on a secret Arlington, Virginia meeting between experts from the FBI’s Counter-Terrorism Centre and Dr. Smirnov, whose work was described in the publication:
...Using electroencephalographs, Smirnov measures brain waves, then uses computers to create a map of the subconscious and various human impulses, such as anger or the sex drive. Then through taped subliminal messages, he claims to physically alter the landscape with the power of suggestion.
Psychotronic Weapons Research
One man’s name has become synonymous with the field of non-lethal weapons development. Col. John Alexander first became known to the public through his December, 1980 Military Review article titled, “The New Mental Battlefield.” This article clearly describes the lethal nature of many of the so-called “non-lethal” weapons now being developed to control civilian populations. Alexander noted:
Psychotronics may be described as the interaction of mind and matter… The possibility for employment as weaponry has been explored. To be more specific, there are weapons systems that operate on the power of the mind and whose lethal capacity has already been demonstrated.
Describing Soviet development of psychotronic weapons, Alexander stated: “The ability to... cause death can be transmitted over distances, thus inducing illness or death for no apparent reason.” These “weapons would be able to induce illness or death at little or no risk to the operator... The psychotronic weapon would be silent (and) difficult to detect...”
Powerful elite insiders have long known how electromagnetic weapons can be effectively utilised to wage mind control against the population, specifically targeting political dissidents and troublemakers. What of the numerous political activists and investigative journalists who died under mysterious circumstances, many from rare forms of cancer? Could they have been ‘taken out’ by psychotronic weapons? We can only imagine how advanced this technology is today.
President Lyndon Johnson’s Science Adviser, Dr. Gordon J.F. MacDonald wrote the 1968 book, Unless Peace Comes, A Scientific Forecast Of New Weapons.
MacDonald described how man-made changes in the electrical earth ionosphere can be used for mass behaviour control. He said that low frequency electromagnetic oscillations can attack the low frequency electromagnetic brain waves in human beings. He stated, “Perturbation of the environment (by geophysical warfare) can produce changes in behavioural patterns.”
In his 1970 book, Between Two Ages, Zbigniew Brezezinski (a long-time Establishment strategist) described “weather control” as a “new weapon” that is a “key element of strategy.” He added:
Technology will make available, to leaders of major nations, a variety of techniques for conducting secret warfare, of which only a bare minimum of the security forces need to be appraised.
Brzezinski predicted the exact types of electromagnetic psychotronic weapons that the US Administration is now developing for mass behaviour control of citizens. He stated:
It is possible – and tempting – to exploit, for strategic-political purposes, the fruits of research on the brain and on human behaviour... Accurately timed, artificially excited electronic strokes could lead to a pattern of oscillations that produce relatively high power levels over certain regions of the earth... In this way, one could develop a system that would seriously impair the brain performance of a very large population in selected regions, over an extended period.
Ultimate Threat to Freedom
As this is being written mankind faces the ultimate threat to what remains of individual liberty and freedom. Our right, our heritage of free will and creative thought is in danger of being permanently denied by insidious technology in the hands of New World Order elitists and their minions who serve a spiritual conspiracy that dwells within, and can be aided by, each of us. It is up to each and every one us to fully resist – on all levels of our being – the attempts by these evil forces to control our thoughts, emotions and actions.
But does this conspiracy extend much further than mere man-made political and economic forces? What of the evidence for a metaphysical component that is working behind the scenes? This question will be dealt with in Part Two of this article.
1. Nature, Vol. 391, 22 January 1998
2. Becker, Robert O., Selden, Gary, The Body Electric, New York: William Morrow, 1985, p. 321.
3. Haslam, John, Illustrations of Madness, London: G. Hayden, 1810.
4. Siegel, Ronald K., Whispers: The Voices of Paranoia, New York: Crown Publishers, 1994.
5. Siegel, R.K., West, L.J., Hallucinations: Behavior, Experience, and Theory, New York: Wiley, 1975.
6. Marks, John, The Search for the Manchurian Candidate, New York: Times Books, 1979.
7. Burdick, Dorothy, Such Things Are Known, New York: Vantage Press, 1982, pp. 150-151.
8. Siegel, Ronald K., Whispers: The Voices of Paranoia, New York: Crown Publishers, 1994, p. 65.
9. Siegel, R.K., “A Device for Chronically Controlled Visual Input,” Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1968 Sept., 11(5), pp. 559-560.
10. Frey, A.H. “Auditory System Response to Radio Frequency Energy”, Aerospace Med. 32:1140-1142, 1961.
11. Lin, James C., Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications, Springfield, IL, USA: Charles C. Thomas Publishers, 1978.
12. Guy, Arthur W., Chou, C.K., Lin, James C., and Christensen, D., “Microwaved-Induced Acoustic Effects in Mammalian Auditory Systems and Physical Materials”, Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 247:194-218, 1975.
13. Justensen, Don R., “Microwaves and Behavior”, American Psychologist, 3/75, p. 396
14. Lin, James C PhD., Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications, Thomas Books, 1978, p. 190; Brodeur, Paul, The Zapping of America, WW Norton & company, 1977, p. 85
15. Tyler, Capt Paul E, MC, USN, “The Electromagnetic Spectrum in Low-Intensity Conflict” in Low Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology, edited by Lt Col David Dean, USAF
16. Delgado, Jose, Physical Control of the Mind: Toward a Psychocivilized Society, New York: Harpers, 1969
17. Operation Paperclip was created by US intelligence during World War II. The goal was to recruit top Nazi specialists to be taken back to the US to continue their work in top secret areas like rocket science and genetics. It is now historical fact that dozens of Nazi scientists were recruited by the operation.
The above article appeared in New Dawn No. 59 (March-April 2000)